These are some 3 1/2 to 4 ft. tall, with maybe a 6 ft. wingspan.
The chicks look about the size of full grown chickens.
Once about Knowledge and knowledge systems, especially knowledge applied to economic development, but since I retired branching into politics, music and whatever catches my attention.
In 2004, an ad hoc committee was charged with preparing this third report examining the most senior S&T appointments to federal government positions and updating the accompanying list of the most urgent S&T presidential appointments. Sufficient changes have occurred since the National Academies 2000 report on presidential appointments including the 2001 terrorist attacks, the anthrax deaths, the reorganization of homeland-security activities in the federal government, new developments in S&T, and concerns about the politicization of S&T decision making and advice to warrant this new edition. In contrast with previous reports on the subject, this one covers not only presidential appointments to top S&T leadership positions but also the appointment of scientists, engineers, and health professionals to serve on federal advisory committees that focus on science-based policy or on the review of research proposals. The committee recognizes that other areas of federal responsibility are as important as S&T, but S&T appointments are the only ones within its purview.
"US senator calls UN climate meeting 'brainwashing'," Deborah Zabarenko, Reuters, November 16, 2006.James Inhofe, an Oklahoma Republican Senator "who will step down as chairman of the Environment and Public Works Committee in January, told a news conference, 'The idea that the science (on global warming) is settled is altogether wrong.'......Inhofe said he acknowledged that the planet is warming but disputed those who attribute it to human activity and the emission of greenhouse gases. Instead, he blamed climate change on natural cycles."
The Bush administration has appointed a new chief of family-planning programs at the Department of Health and Human Services who worked at a Christian pregnancy-counseling organization that regards the distribution of contraceptives as "demeaning to women.""ABSTINENCE EDUCATION: Efforts to Assess the Accuracy and Effectiveness of Federally Funded Programs," GAO Report to Congressional Requesters (GAO-07-87), October 2006. (PDF, 62 pages.)
Eric Keroack, medical director for A Woman's Concern, a nonprofit group based in Dorchester, Mass., will become deputy assistant secretary for population affairs in the next two weeks, department spokeswoman Christina Pearson said yesterday.
Keroack, an obstetrician-gynecologist, will advise Secretary Mike Leavitt on matters such as reproductive health and adolescent pregnancy. He will oversee $283 million in annual family-planning grants that, according to HHS, are "designed to provide access to contraceptive supplies and information to all who want and need them with priority given to low-income persons."
The appointment, which does not require Senate confirmation, was the latest provocative personnel move by the White House since Democrats won control of Congress in this month's midterm elections. President Bush last week pushed the Senate to confirm John R. Bolton as ambassador to the United Nations and this week renominated six candidates for appellate court judgeships who have previously been blocked by lawmakers.
The Keroack appointment angered many family-planning advocates, who noted that A Woman's Concern supports sexual abstinence until marriage, opposes contraception and does not distribute information promoting birth control at its six centers in eastern Massachusetts.
Efforts by HHS and states to assess the scientific accuracy of materials used in abstinence-until-marriage education programs have been limited. This is because HHS’s ACF (Administration for Children and Families) — which awards grants to two programs that account for the largest portion of federal spending on abstinence-until-marriage education — does not review its grantees’ education materials for scientific accuracy and does not require grantees of either program to review their own materials for scientific accuracy. In contrast, OPA (Office of Population Affairs) does review the scientific accuracy of grantees’ proposed educational materials. In addition, not all states that receive funding from ACF have chosen to review their program materials for scientific accuracy. In particular, 5 of the 10 states that GAO contacted conduct such reviews. Officials from these states reported using a variety of approaches in their reviews. While the extent to which federally funded abstinence-until-marriage education materials are inaccurate is not known, in the course of their reviews OPA and some states reported that they have found inaccuracies in abstinence-until-marriage education materials. For example, one state official described an instance in which abstinence-until-marriage materials incorrectly suggested that HIV can pass through condoms because the latex used in condoms is porous.The report notes:
HHS, states, and researchers have made a variety of efforts to assess the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs; however, a number of factors limit the conclusions that can be drawn about the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs. ACF and OPA have required their grantees to report on various outcomes that the agencies use to measure the effectiveness of grantees’ abstinence-until-marriage education programs. In addition, 6 of the 10 states in GAO’s review have worked with third-party evaluators to assess the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs in their states. Several factors, however, limit the conclusions that can be drawn about the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs. Most of the efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs included in GAO’s review have not met certain minimum scientific criteria—such as random assignment of participants and sufficient follow-up periods and sample sizes—that experts have concluded are necessary in order for assessments of program effectiveness to be scientifically valid, in part because such designs can be expensive and time-consuming to carry out. In addition, the results of efforts that meet the criteria of a scientifically valid assessment have varied and two key studies funded by HHS that meet these criteria have not yet been completed. When completed, these HHS-funded studies may add substantively to the body of research on the effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage education programs.
In commenting on a draft of this report, HHS agreed to consider requiring grantees of both ACF programs to sign written assurances in grant applications that the materials they use are accurate. In addition, HHS noted that all federal grant applicants attest on a standard form that information in their applications is correct. However, it is not clear that this serves the purpose of assuring the scientific accuracy of the educational materials. Further, the curricula to be used are not required to be included with states’ applications. HHS’s written comments also stated that ACF requires that the Community-Based Program curricula conform to standards that are grounded in scientific literature by requiring certain types of information. However, the inclusion of certain types of information does not necessarily ensure the accuracy of the scientific facts included in the abstinence-until-marriage materials. In addition, HHS noted in its written comments that we did not define the term scientific accuracy and stated that it disagreed with certain findings of the report because it was difficult to precisely determine the criteria employed by GAO in making the recommendation as to scientific accuracy. However, the objective of our work was to focus on efforts by HHS and states to review the accuracy of scientific facts included in abstinence-until-marriage education materials and not to perform an independent assessment of the criteria used or the quality of the reviews. With regard to effectiveness, HHS agreed that it may be too soon to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of ACF’s and OPA’s programs. (Emphasis added.)TPM Mudraker.Com comments:
This is kind of fun. In a new report on publicly-funded abstinence programs, a government watchdog charged that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) allows programs to distribute inaccurate sex information to kids, and suggested the agency clean up its act.Comment: The Bush Administration's political agenda, based on the moral views of an influential portion of its constituency, again appears to trump its interest in scientific accuracy in the field or reproductive biology. JAD
But in its defense, HHS argued that it doesn't know how to tell whether something is "scientifically accurate."
In the 2005-06 school year, though, according to a survey released Monday by the Institute of International Education, the number held steady at 564,766, and new enrollments were up about 8 percent. Credit goes to the State Department, which made foreign students a priority, adding workers to streamline the visa process and starting new recruiting and scholarship programs. Credit also goes to the educational institutions that put new energy into recruitment efforts.Go to the full Open Doors Report 2006 website.
American students continued to study abroad in record numbers, according to Open Doors 2006, reaching 205,983 students -- an increase of 8% over the prior year's report. This latest surge builds on steady increases over the past few decades, and is buoyed in part by growing interest in destinations in Asia and South America, according to Open Doors, the annual report on international education published by the Institute of International Education with funding from the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.Happy International Education Week.
our main defenses will be nonpharmacological interventions, such as hand washing, "respiratory etiquette," face masks, school closure, and social distancing or isolation (6, 7). These are ironically similar to the measures used in 1918 to combat the greatest of all known influenza pandemics (8, 9).The article concludes:
Recent attempts to identify the most effective nonpharmacological interventions have revealed that these measures have a thin science base (6, 7, 10-13). For example, it is uncertain whether influenza transmission from person to person is primarily by large droplets or by fine particles. Although this may seem a specialist issue, it has a direct bearing on how far apart people should position themselves to prevent infection and on whether relatively inexpensive face masks might be useful. Recent results in the guinea pig (14) indicated that transmission of influenza could occur even when cages were kept ~3 feet apart, which contradicts conventional wisdom. The results should be confirmed in other models.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently awarded grants to study nonpharmacological interventions in community settings. Although a commendable start, the CDC program so far represents $5.2 million in a total proposed pandemic influenza budget of $7.1 billion. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) may also include related areas in their funding. We should systematically address knowledge gaps now during upcoming flu seasons, rather than wait to empirically test measures ad hoc when the next pandemic is upon us.Comment: I simply want to point out that nonpharmacological techniques for public health interventions to limit flu epidemics (which happen every year and kill huge numbers of people) and pandemics (which happen every couple of decades and kill even larger numbers of people) are "public goods". The people who do the research and development of such techniques cannot find a way to appropriate part of the benefits to the public resulting from their work via sales of goods or services. We depend on foundations or governments to fund such research and development, but it is not sexy and does not get the attention it deserves. So billions are spent to develop pharmacological techniques and little for what might be very effective nonpharmacological techniques. The success in finding cost-effective techniques in other public health cases -- oral re-hydration therapy, bed nets against malaria bearing mosquitoes, communications to promote safe sexual behaviors, to name a few -- suggests that such research can be very helpful, not to mention cost effective!
Concerned that the voice of science and secularism is growing ever fainter in the White House, on Capitol Hill and in culture, a group of prominent scientists and advocates of strict church-state separation yesterday announced formation of a Washington think tank designed to promote "rationalism" as the basis of public policy.According to Wikipedia, Paul Kurtz (born December 21, 1925) "is founder and chairman of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), the Council for Secular Humanism, the Center for Inquiry and Prometheus Books. He is editor in chief of Free Inquiry magazine, a publication of the Council for Secular Humanism. He was co-president of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU)."
The brainchild of Paul Kurtz, founder of the Center for Inquiry-Transnational, the small public policy office will lobby and sometimes litigate on behalf of science-based decision making and against religion in government affairs.
Kincannon officially cited family responsibilities for his departure. But in an interview he mentioned "different views perhaps about priorities" at the agency.Rep. Carolyn B. Maloney (N.Y.), a member of the Government Reform Committee and former ranking Democrat on the census subcommittee, said in a statement.
"My perception is that I don't have the same level of trust that I did a year or so ago," said Kincannon, who began his career at the agency in 1963. "The relationship has changed, and that relationship I regard as essential." There was no official reason given for Habermann's departure and no letter was released. Habermann could not be reached to comment......
One person with knowledge of the situation suggested that the two officials -- especially Habermann, a career employee -- were targeted by Republicans who would want to install an official who could better protect against Democratic congressional efforts to reinvigorate adjustment efforts -- a move some think could favor Democrats.
"It's disturbing that two world-class statisticians who have worked for years to make sure we will have an accurate count in 2010 left on the same day so soon before the beginning of the census.U.S. House of Representatives Districts are to be apportioned according to population, and reapportionment normally occurs after each census. It turns out that more Democrats are missed by census takers than Republicans. The use of statistical means to estimate total population based on the census enumeration therefore can change the basis for the reapportion of Districts. There is no doubt that the statisticians can improve the accuracy of population estimates over the pure enumeration.
"At this point, without knowing who's taking over, it fair to say that the accuracy of the 2010 census is absolutely in jeopardy."
"I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the state of Science, whatever the matter may be."Mathews' article considers the history of educational testing in the United States, and has a questioning tone.
Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, Popular Lectures and Addresses, vol. 1, "Electrical Units of Measurement", 1883-05-03
One vogue approach to the glut of polls this year was to surrender judgment, assume all polls were equal and average their findings. Political junkies bookmarked Web sites that aggregated polls and posted five- and 10-poll averages.Comment: I agree! JAD
But, perhaps unsurprisingly, averages work only "on average." For example, the posted averages on the Maryland governor's and Senate races showed them as closely competitive; they were not. Polls from The Post and Gallup showed those races as solidly Democratic in June, September and October, just as they were on Election Day.......
averaging polls encourages the already excessive attention paid to horse-race numbers. Preelection polls are not meant to be crystal balls. Putting a number on the status of the race is a necessary part of preelection polls, but much is lost if it's the only one.
We need standards, not averages. There's certainly a place for averages. My investment portfolio, for example, would be in better shape today if I had invested in broad indexes of securities instead of fancying myself a stock-picker. At the same time, I'd be in a much tighter financial position if I took investment advice from spam e-mails as seriously as that from accredited financial experts.......
Pollsters sometimes disagree about how to conduct surveys, but the high-quality polling we should pay attention to is based on an established method undergirded by statistical theory.
The gold standard in news polling remains interviewers making telephone calls to people randomly selected from a sample of a definable, reachable population. To be sure, the luster on the method is not as shiny as it once was, but I'd always choose tarnished precious metals over fool's gold.
Before anyone feels condemned to night classes and bell curves to sort through the glut of polls, let me say that the primary filtering burden should rest with the news media. It's ironic in a field that prides itself on sorting reliable sources from bogus ones that so many treat all numbers -- including poll estimates -- equally, and as valid on their face.
News organizations should be aware that they give immediate credibility to the "facts" they air or print. But this is not an argument for some sort of media monopoly on polling information.
There is something refreshing about George Stephanopoulos. After George Bush announced that he was firing Don Rumsfeld, Stephanopoulos -- on the air at the time -- actually seemed shocked that just a week earlier the president had said he would do no such thing. Stephanopoulos not only suggested that the president had lied but that he was wrong to have done so."CIA Acknowledges 2 Interrogation Memos: Papers Called Too Sensitive for Release" Dan Eggen, November 14, 2006.
After years of denials, the CIA has formally acknowledged the existence of two classified documents governing aggressive interrogation and detention policies for terrorism suspects, according to the American Civil Liberties Union.Thomas Jefferson said it for me:
But CIA lawyers say the documents -- memos from President Bush and the Justice Department -- are still so sensitive that no portion can be released to the public.
"The functionaries of every government have propensities to command at will the liberty and property of their constituents. There is no safe deposit for these but with the people themselves, nor can they be safe with them without information. Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe."
--Thomas Jefferson to Charles Yancey, 1816. ME 14:384
Thacker's investigative reporting, he says, didn't please some of the people he worked for, and he soon found his career on the line. He says a board member of the American Chemical Society (ACS), which publishes ES&T, objected to a story he wrote about the Weinberg Group, an international scientific and regulatory consulting firm which specializes in, among other things, "product defense." Thacker's story examined a proposal made by The Weinberg Group to chemical giant DuPont. The document outlined a detailed product-defense strategy regarding PFOA, a chemical DuPont uses in the production of Teflon. The letter arrived as DuPont was facing pressure from the EPA and a civil-action lawsuit by West Virginia residents who claimed to suffer serious health effects from exposure to PFOA. Thacker says the ACS board member suggested he was focused on "muckraking rather than reporting news." He further claims that he was told to stop his investigative reporting.
He didn't. Several months later, Thacker unearthed evidence that the White House had tried to prevent scientists from speaking out about the link between climate change and the increasing strength of hurricanes. He says ES&T refused to allow him to follow the story, so he found a home for it at salon.com. Then, he says, he was fired from ES&T. In a written statement, an ACS representative told AIR, "...it is not the policy of the American Chemical Society to comment on conditions of individual's employment or departure."
The music stopped, the station's logo faded and one of the co-anchors came into focus.After reading this I wanted to blog on the value of knowledge. Clearly the news bulletin provided information, and some people learned something about Ms. Hilton. The news editor thought, correctly I suppose, that the audience would value the knowledge gained sufficiently that it was worth broadcasting. In the U.S., TV channels are profit making entities, and the news editor must have made the judgment that broadcasting Ms. Hilton's difficulties would make the station more money in the long run than broadcasting the other information that was at hand. Thus the value that the viewers placed on the information served to set the value that the media placed upon it. I must admit that I fail to understand why anyone would care to know about Ms. Hilton's arrest other than her immediate family, and I suppose that is a very small part of the audience.
"This just in from Los Angeles," he began, with a somber expression on his face.
Then a picture of Paris Hilton appeared above his left shoulder.
The news anchor informed us that Paris Hilton had been arrested early that morning on a DUI charge. He also reported that Ms. Hilton was briefly handcuffed. The anchor solemnly promised we would be kept informed as the latest news on the arrest came in.
I started to laugh, as did several of the other early birds. But the significance of the report soon turned my thoughts to a sober realization: someone, probably the morning news show's producer, considered Ms. Hilton's arrest a highly newsworthy event. Is Paris Hilton being arrested really worth a "Breaking News"
I'm a Muslim Kazakh woman who arrived in the United States two months ago to work on my master's in public administration. Almost every time I meet people and tell them where I come from, they ask me about the "Kazakh journalist" Borat, "the sixth most famous man" in Kazakhstan. I answer that Borat is a satirical fictional character who has nothing in common with Kazakhstan or its people.I suspect that many Americans who think Kazakhstanis should "lighten up" and enjoy the humor would be quite upset were the shoe on the other foot, and Americans were shown as boors and buffoons in a foreign movie.
"She presents a thicket of rules, and if all the guidelines are followed, a person won't be able to say much of anything.
"It is also a mixed message: Go out there and communicate freely and vigorously, but be very careful what you say.
"The combination of micromanagement and mixed message will lead to learned helplessness on the part of the recipient. They will feel obliged to do something but unable to decide what. . . .
"The only thing a recipient can do is spout the preexisting words of senior officials. There is no possibility to exercise initiative -- which is another way of saying this is an exercise in micromanagement."
Josette Sheeran, a senior U.S. State Department official and former managing editor of the Washington Times, was chosen Tuesday to head the United Nations' Rome-based World Food Program for a five-year term.According to Wikipedia:
Sheeran, the U.S. undersecretary of state for economics, business and agricultural affairs, will replace American James T. Morris, who plans to step down around the end of the year. She will take charge of the United Nations' largest humanitarian institution, which feeds about 90 million people in about 80 of the world's poorest countries.......
John R. Bolton, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, welcomed the appointment, saying he looked forward to Sheeran's leadership of the World Food Program. "She's obviously an extraordinarily well-qualified candidate," Bolton said.......
The Bush administration was sensitive to the possibility that Sheeran's former membership in the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church would emerge as an issue in the race. A U.S. official pressed The Washington Post not to mention Sheeran's past links to the church, saying it was inappropriate to describe her religious affiliation.
The Times was founded in 1982 by Sun Myung Moon, leader of the Unification Church and the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, to be a conservative alternative to the larger Washington Post.
Award partnerships, such as those in the ATP and SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) programs, can provide an effective means to encourage small firms with promising ideas and technologies to gain access to early-stage financing. In doing so, partnerships contribute to the achievement of government missions in important ways.Science notes that
Programs such as the SBIR can accelerate and facilitate the modernization of the U.S. defense establishment by introducing new and better information systems. Programs such as the ATP are helping to bring new energy-saving technologies to the market as well as new medical devices and instruments to the healthcare system. Around the world award-based partnerships, such as the ATP and SBIR, are increasingly seen as an effective means to overcome obstacles to new technological development.
the benefits of ATP projects have extended far beyond the companies themselves. Several studies examining a total of 14 projects have claimed an economic return that exceeded $1.2 billion for the $87 million spent by the government. In 1998, a study by the Research Triangle Institute in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, estimated that seven successful tissue-engineering projects that received roughly $15 million from ATP saved society $34 billion in reduced morbidity and lower medical costs.Although the program was launched during the Reagan Administration and first funded during President George H. W. Bush's administration, it was opposed by a faction of the Republican party. That faction cited ideological reasons for their opposition -- that governments should not try to choose winners among technological innovations because the process was best left to the marketplace, that government technology capacity was not up to the task, etc.
* Information and Communication Technologies for Development (more than 13,700 members and 9,600 online resources)I have also served in the past as an adviser for its community:
* Nanotechnology for Development (more than 2,000 members and 600+ online resources) This was set up as an experiment and Anil Srivastava have been donating our time and the Foundation donating the hosting service. Sometime soon we are going to need a little outside funding if this service is to continue.
* Knowledge Economy (nearly 13,000 members and 4,000 online resources. Note my current highlight on the community portal home page.)These are three of some 30 online dgCommunities which together have more than 50,000 online postings. When I started in international development in the 1960's and even into the 1990's, my colleagues in developing countries had very limited access to professional literature on development, and very little opportunity to understand what was going on in their fields in other developing nations. Those of us in donor agencies had only a little better access to development information, and went from country to country learning as we went and sharing what we could. The dgCommunity pages now give practitioners direct access not only to 50,000 current resources online but to many millions of indirect development resources through its links to key sources on the World Wide Web. Each community portal also gives its users the ability to search its collection, to comment on resources and read the comments of others; all the resources are structured according to the key issues. The community portals also give users news, a calendar of events, etc. Of course anyone can use these resources which are freely available on the Internet, and if I recall correctly less than 5% of the resources pulled down are by members; however, it is only members who can submit new content for approval by the editors or who can receive the email newsletters and alerts sent by the communities. I use other development portals such as Dev-Zone and Eldis, but the Development Gateway is much richer; it takes some investment of time to learn to use it well, but that investment pays off.
* AIDA (A directory of over 500,000 activities of major bilateral organizations, multilateral development banks and UN agencies. Over 130,000 are ongoing and planned, residing in the live database. For each entry there is a meta-description, and a link to more detailed information about the project.)I want to go into more detail on the network of Country Development Gateways. These are 50 locally owned and managed country-specific development portals. The Development Gateway Foundation and the World Bank collaborated to provide seed money for the network and the large majority of its member organizations, but they are independent. (I organized the grant competition in the early years and provided oversight for the grant review process, and can affirm that independence and sustainability were important criteria for selection of the organizations to receive the seed funding.) The country specific portals all share the same goal of using the Internet to provide development information to the communities within their own nations. They have gone about realizing their goals in different ways, and while their portals share a common look and feel, they have very different content and organization. They include a range from government supported portals in large developing nations, to civil society portals in small nations.
* dgMarket (This is a service which publishes announcements of tenders for goods and services. It promotes transparency in procurement, allows the buyers to inform a large group of potential suppliers with the tender, and allows suppliers of goods and services to easily find large variety of sales opportunities. The use of Internet technology makes this affordable. The Foundation has also helped developing countries set up their own online procurement marketplace using its software platforms.)
* A data and statistics page which is really very useful.
* The Foundation has also funded a program of eGovernment grants with the Government of Italy. It conducts Development Gateway Forums (face to face meetings on ICT for Development, and offers the Development Gateway Prize (Its first Prize winner, Muhammad Yunus, just added the Nobel Peace Prize to his collection.). It provides an online directory of consultants working in Latin America and the Caribbean as part of dgMarket. It has an "Aid Effectiveness" tool which it makes available to governments and donor agencies. (I don't really understand the tool, but it is designed to help organizations to coordinate aid and reduce waste and overlap.) It runs a number of Training and Research Centers in collaboration with the governments of their host countries (as a consultant, I helped set up this program.)
Defining an appropriate policy-making role for Africa's scientific community requires a careful balance between 'science push' and 'demand pull'."Science and technology" is a big field, and science and technology policy is necessarily complex. The United States, with the world's biggest national R&D enterprise, is perhaps the prototypical example. There is the National Science Foundation as well as a plethora of foundations and other entities involved in financing fundamental research. Industrial, agricultural, medical and other sectoral research systems have largely separate and autonomous R&D policy systems. In part this complexity is due to the system evolving -- just growing like Topsy -- rather than being the result of some grand plan. But the complexity is probably also due to the fact that decisions are better made by different means according to the circumstances of those decisions.
The optimal solution, as so often, lies somewhere between the two (science push versus demand pull). The creative spirit at the heart of scientific enterprise requires a certain degree of autonomy to flourish. But if this spirit is not harnessed to the goals and values of the society that supports it — which means in practice contributing to technological innovation for social and economic progress — such support is likely to evaporate.For Africa, I hope to see a number of participants in the science and technology process. These would include Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine providing inputs especially from established scientists and people in the technological professions, as well as from profession societies representing a wider range of professionals. So too, I would like to see participation of legislators, people from industry and from civil society. It seems to me that the legislative and executive branches of governments should play central and analytic coordinating roles, both in terms of allocations for publicly funded S&T, and for creating policies to foster development of S&T in the for-profit and non-profit private sectors.